Pickled Green Black Walnuts

pickled green walnuts in jar, pickled green black walnut on plate, sliced pickled green black walnut

I’ve liked the idea of pickled green walnuts for a while so last year I made a batch to see how I felt about them. Verdict: Love. I’m making them again. My friends like them too. Pickled green walnuts were a big hit over the holidays where they took center stage on lots of cheeseboards. Folks’ reactions have been fun to observe. You can tell when someone enters uncharted territory, foodmap-wise. “It’s like, what?” Some liken them to watermelon rind pickles—the spice blend is similar. The common describer-words are Worcestershire Sauce and Woody. Makes sense. They are deeply brown, slightly acrid, and somewhat sweet. And they do possess a woodiness, unlike any other food.

green walnuts on the tree, harvesting green walnuts

This year I almost missed my chance at them. I kept not seeing nuts on a nearby tree. By late June I got suspicious, gathered my nut pole (empty paint roller on and extension pole), and returned to my secret grove. Good timing! Half the nuts were already too large. I gathered a bagful, scooping up some that probably borderline on too large. But this is an ongoing experiment and this batch will reveal which ones are too big.

An English Legacy

It’s for sure that English walnut trees came to the colonies with ye olde pickled green walnut recipes. Early American cookery books included the method for making them. My favorite, The Virginia Housewives Cookbook (1824, Mary Randolph), briefly describes the process in that leaving-out-details-because-everyone-already-knows-this kind of way. Recipes continued to appear in American cookbooks until just after the turn of the century, then pickled walnuts faded away with the Victorians. Back in Britain, the recipe stayed constant. My 1960 edition of Mrs Beeton’s Cookery and Household Management (England’s version of Fannie Farmer, roughly) has a pickled green walnut recipe identical to American recipes from the 1890s. Jump to now and the pendulum is swinging back towards Yankee Reclamation. Last year my Google searches turned up just a few recipes, many from the UK. This year, a host of posts and references. Pickled green walnuts are trending.

Deploying Pickled Green Walnuts

The spicy, pickly flavor of green walnuts makes them fantastic with cheese and cured meats—the perfect counterpoint to all that unctuousness. As well, they can be used as truffle stand-ins. Not exactly the same flavor, but equally alluring. Shave off paper-thin slices with a mandolin over eggs, potatoes, and cheesy dishes like gratins or mac & cheese. I like that green walnut flavor and texture on grilled cheese sandwiches—and they’re sublime on a roast beef & brie sandwich. The English tradition is to add pickled green walnuts to stews and braises and pot roasts. Think Worcestershire chunks. Brilliant!

pickled green black walnuts and charcuterie, cross section of pickled green black walnut

Below are the over-the-top deviled eggs my friends Glenn and Ashley English topped with pickled green black walnuts. Ashley’s my cookbook and homesteading hero and this is her SmallMeasure InstaGram post. 
Ashley English Deviled Eggs

Making a Batch

The first step in the process is to pierce the nuts in several places so flavor gets to the insides. Wear protection and work outside. The insides are under pressure and the first puncture lets out a high-flying spurt of walnut water. In my haste this year, I forgot what I knew and worked indoors without gloves. My kitchen ceiling has olive drab spatters and my fingertips are permanently stained.

Brining is next and methods can vary here—some do a brief brine, others go long, some change out the brine often, others not at all.  I want some fermentation action so I brine mine for two weeks, replacing it halfway through.

After air-curing the nuts a few days, they’re ready to be pickled. The simple route is to cover the walnuts with boiling pickle, seal the jars, and store them for some months in a cool place. You can do it that way. But I choose to simmer my walnuts in the pickle a few minutes. I believe this speeds up flavor uptake. I also can my pickled walnuts (jars, seals, hot water bath). I’m pretty sure that makes them tastier faster too. Bonus is the jars are sealed and durable for gifting. You can always pop open a jar at any time to check progress.

pickling green walnuts, piercing green walnuts with a needle, soaking in brine

Clockwise from top-left.  A darning needle clamped in vise-grip pliers makes a sturdy piercing post  •  Display brining walnuts in pretty containers  •  Handling green walnuts is an extraordinarily verdant experience, with their bright green color and intense scent. (Anyone remember green Vitabath?)


GREEN BLACK WALNUT specimens range from just under the size of a quarter to as large as a lime. Inside, their shells shouldn’t be any harder than cardboard. If a needle passes through easily without hitting solid, you’re good. That said, each nut is different, hardness-wise. (If in doubt, I add them to the lot.) Harvest time here is June through early July. The season goes later at higher elevations and farther north.  •  GREEN ENGLISH WALNUTS have smoother skins than native black walnuts and tend to be less woody at larger sizes.

 Pickled Green Walnuts

Makes as much as you wish


Pierce the walnuts through in several places with a large pin—I pierce mine 3 times.

  • Gather enough jars or non-reactive containers to hold the walnuts.
  • To judge how much brine to make, place your nuts in the container(s) then fill them with water.
  • Drain and measure the water and mix that much brine according to this formula:

1/2 cup of salt per 4 cups of water

  • Soak the walnuts for 7 days, occasionally pushing them down into the brine.
  • Drain the brine and replace it with a fresh batch. Soak for another 7 days. (It can be fewer or more days.) Note: a bit of foamy froth may form on top. That’s fermentation and it’s a good thing. Let it be.
  • Using a large colander, drain and rinse the walnuts.
  • Spread the walnuts in a single layer on a rimmed baking sheet or tray and place them in a warm spot to cure—out in the sun is great—until they turn completely brown-black. This takes 2 or 3 days.

Calculate how many jars and how much pickle you’ll need by packing jars with walnuts and filling them with water. Drain and measure the water—that’s how much pickle to make, plus 2 more cups. Here’s the pickle formula:

For 4 cups of pickle, add:

  1. 4 cups apple cider vinegar
  2. 1 cup sugar—your choice, brown or white
  3. 1 to 2 inches peeled fresh ginger, cut into thin slices
  4. 1 tablespoon whole black peppercorns
  5. 2 teaspoons whole allspice
  6. 2 teaspoons white or green peppercorn, or a blend
  7. 1 teaspoon (10–15) whole cloves
  8. 1/2 teaspoon ground mace (substitute ground nutmeg)
  9. 1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes (optional)
  10. 1–2 cloves garlic, chopped (optional)


  • Clean and sterilize the jars.
  • Combine all of the pickle ingredients in a large non-reactive pot. Bring the mixture to a boil and add the walnuts. When the pickle returns to a low boil, simmer the nuts for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • Pack the walnuts into sterilized jars, leaving enough space so the pickle completely covers the nuts.
  • Seal the jars. Once cooled, wipe the jars clean. Store the pickled walnuts in a cool, dark spot for at least 8 weeks. They’re best after 4 months.


  • Have your canner filled, heated, and ready for processing. Sterilize the jars, lids, and rings.
  • Prepare the pickle and simmer the walnuts as described above.
  • Pack the jars with walnuts. Leave enough space for the pickle to cover the nuts.
  • Ladle the hot pickle into the jars, leaving 1 inch of headspace.
  • Wipe the jar rims clean, place the lids, and screw on the rings.
  • Lower the jars into the boiling water—there should be about 1 inch of water above the jars.
  • Cover the canner and when the water returns to a low boil, remove the lid and process the pickles for 15 minutes.
  • Transfer the jars to a towel-covered surface. Once sealed and cooled, wipe the jars clean and store them in a cool space for at least 6 weeks. Green walnut pickles are best after 3–4 months. They’ll keep for several years.

sliced pickled green black walnuts with crackers, brie cheese, and salami

A final benediction.  If you don’t feel like going to the next step in any part of the process on the day it’s supposed to happen, just don’t. It’s a no-fail, no-sweat process. Have fun!
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Chris Bryant


  1. i have picked several pound of walnuts have pieced them with fork i had thin rubber gloves on but must have pricked one so now i to have brown palm . now in brine ,my husband cut several in half and said there was fawn to brown marking in centre of nut so shouldn’t use them . ive never cut one in half before as always pieced right through . and never had any complaints before, what do you think .

    • Evelyn, It’s hard to say. I’ve pickled more mature ones that worked fine and others that were less than ideal. The outer shell texture determines whether they’re great or not. As walnuts mature they become less dense and more pithy, and the outer layer becomes grainy and crumbly, especially noticeable when you slice them. Last year I intentionally added some more mature walnuts to my batch to see what happens. I’d kicked around the idea of making walnut ketchup anyway (a sauce almost indistinguishable from worcestershire) and figured if the big ones failed as pickles there’d be my excuse to make ketchup.

      So glad I did! After cutting into a few walnuts after they’d brined I got a feel for which size worked for pickles and which size tended to be too gritty and therefore perfect for walnut ketchup.

      Walnut ketchup is great because you can use walnuts at any stage while they’re still green. Many ways to make it, a few recipes grind freshly harvested walnuts but many call for brining like walnut pickles then grinding them. I brine for about a week. I think that step adds flavorful lacto-action plus it softens them for grinding. Although I didn’t get my walnut ketchup post together in time this year (it’s in the hopper for next year) Hank Shaw at Hunter Angler Gardener Cook posted a marvelous one this month.


      His is similar to what I make except I add molasses, I use mace instead of nutmeg, I go heavier on the black pepper, and I add tamarind paste. I also strain mine through a fairly coarse mesh so some solids remain in the ketchup.

      So keep with your batch, Evelyn, and if you don’t like the results, make ketchup!

  2. Ever try using alternative sweeteners (sucNat/honey/maple syrup) instead of a more refined form of sugar?

    • Casper, I use honey and sorghum syrup lot and think they’d work great. But flavor-wise, smokey molasses would be a perfect match. In fact molasses is what I use in Walnut Ketchup. Start with same proportions (exact measurements aren’t important here) and go up from there if you like.

  3. wow! A friend posted your site and I’m your groupie now! Can’t wait to try this. All of it! The pickled greenies, the walnut ketchup(!), the pink deviled eggs ahhhh thanks!

  4. Do you have to use the sugar or can you leave this out?

    • You can leave out sugar for sure. But in my opinion the sugar adds dimension and rounds out the overall flavor. Imagine Worcestershire sauce without its sweetness—if that sounds good, try leaving out sugar. You can always add some later if you change your mind!

  5. Hi .. this is my first attempt in pickled walnuts, live in Denmark, have always wanted a me a walnut tree, a few years ago moved into this tiny house with a beautiful walnut tree.
    Here are squirrels & we share, I take the green ones, later come squirrels and birds empties the tree.:)
    Thank you for your recipe, I have a question; After the first fermenting in salt brine (the whole pricked walnuts).. Do you cut or slice the nuts before they are being placed in the sun, and filled on glasses in the vinegar brine ????? Or when do you slice them…the pictures show sliced beautiful black nuts.

    • Hi Lenie, You have made a fair compromise with the birds and squirrels! I think you are getting the most interesting part of the harvest. To answer your great question, the green walnuts remain whole throughout the entire process––brining, drying, and pickling. It is when I serve the walnuts that I slice them. Also, I find that they dry out quickly once they are removed from the jar and sliced, so keep them whole until you are ready to eat them. Cheers!

  6. mine are still hard what dtd i do wrong

    • I’m replying too late to make a difference to your batch at this point, but I wonder how mature were the walnuts you started with? The last batch I made, I knew some of my walnuts were probably too mature but I added them anyway to see what happens. They were indeed too woody, like trying to eat cork! I ended up pulverizing the hard ones in the food processor, straining out the liquid and using it to make homemade Worcestershire sauce. The best way to gauge whether they’re too mature is by how easily the needle or nail passes through when you pierce them before brining. If you feel resistance, or sense the needle is passing though an empty space, then cut it open and look inside. If there’s a layer that clearly looks like a shell has developed, all the nuts that size are probably too mature for pickles. But hey still can be used to flavor vinegars or make a green walnut worcestershire-like sauce.

  7. This was very helpful, especially the last note about how to gauge the size. I tried pickled black walnuts last year and couldn’t eat them…like trying to eat cork for sure, but well flavored cork!! First thing tomorrow is gathering the nuts and giving them the needle test.

  8. The ends of pickled walnuts i buy ,have the ends cut off, at what stage do you do this ?

    • Hi Peter, I’ve never cut off the ends and none of the historical pickled walnut recipes I checked from the 18th or 19th century mention cutting. I wonder if it’s an Italian or European method…where did the ones you mention come from?

  9. could this be made without sugar, or does the sugar act as a preservative or fermentation fuel? and do the glass jars need to be sterilized? i lactoferment all the time without sterilizing equipment but don’t consider this a lactoferment. (is it a lactoferment if i use raw apple cider vinegar and don’t boil the pickling solution?) also, the vinegar is not acidic enough to inhibit botulism. is that a concern? is that why you properly can yours?–i made a batch of these last year, then discarded them without trying after reading other recipes that sterilized the jars and /or used a proper canning method. thanks for your thoughts!
    (I’m thinking i’ll sterilize my jars but won’t use sugar or can. still debating whether to boil the AC vinegar, thereby killing the mother, or to leave it raw. also, i’d prefer the finished walnuts to have a firm, sliceable texture and understand that boiling them makes them softer, so would prefer NOT to boil them. again, am i taking a botulism risk, then, since i dried them in a dishdrainer on the ground in my yard?–thanks for any help!)

    • Hey Luce! Thanks for the great questions!

      Starting with the sugar issue, you could leave it out—it’s not there as a preservative—but, in my opinion, some sugar enhanced the depth of flavor. My theory is that since taste is based on salty, sweet, bitter, sour, and umami, the most delectable things we eat hit all those buttons and this recipe is a pleasing balance of them all. I’d suggest using less sugar—say, half— but not all of it just to ensure the green walnut’s innate bitterness doesn’t take over. Also, I’ve used much less sugar than some of the historical recipes I’ve researched, some of which are outright preserved in syrup.

      As for botulism, I never clocked that as a concern because we’re preserving in straight vinegar. My understanding is botulism is a danger when the food, be it vegetable, fruit, or meat, is itself low acid and is being canned in a low- or non-acidic liquid. Then you would need to use a pressurized canner to be safe, or process in a water bath in excess of 100 minutes.

      But that’s not what this is. The walnuts have absorbed a great deal of salt while brining, then pickled in straight vinegar. I wouldn’t worry about botulism. For the sake of comparison, a 3-part vinegar to 1-part water solution is considered safe for cucumbers, among the lowest acid (pH) foods to get pickled. That’s why I felt confident enough to include a non-processed version of pickling based on the 19th century recipes from which I was working.

      As for whether to boil or not to boil? I say boil! I think it’s necessary in order to get the savory spiciness and the essential vinegar deep into the nearly impenetrable nuts. Don’t worry about making them too soft. Remember, these things are semi-wood!

      Regarding the recipe’s lacto-ferment status. The whole process begins as a lacto-fermentation with initial brining. That stage helps soften the nuts, enriches flavor by adding fermented funkiness, and leaches out some of the tannins and bitterness that makes raw green walnuts inedible. But once they’re dried, most of the bacteria goes way. And that’s OK. Just like yeast that’s done it’s essential job then dies when bread is baked, fermentation has done it’s work on the walnuts and doesn’t need to continue.

      As a matter of fact, it’s good to stop the fermentation of pickled walnuts. Continuing to keep them “alive” will not improve them in nay way, and would likely digest them to the point of mealiness. So I suggest not worrying about killing the mother and go ahead and boil the batch before jarring up.

      Finally, whether to process or not to process. It’s really up to you. I have found that with unsealed jars, in a couple of months, a black, almost mold-like, powder starts to form around the edge of the lids. It’s not a bad thing, except it will stain your hands. But canned jars stay clean for years—I have some that are over 5 years old!

      I hope this info helps you decide how to proceed. Enjoy your walnuts!

  10. Hi! I am interested in your walnut ketchup recipe. I would be canning. I picked some green walnuts off my tree yesterday and I think they are too mature. I can get a nail through but it hits a hard place in the middle. Cannot go completely though walnut. Although there was no brown when I cut one open. I enjoyed this article! Thank you!

  11. Can the walnuts be eaten after the first initial step of just fermenting them in brine? Is it ok to eat them while they are still raw? This is what I’ve been looking for. Thank you a lot!

  12. I’m on week two of the brine, but my green walnuts seem to have hardened substantially. Is that normal? Eek!

  13. Great post about the pickled black walnuts. We have a ton of them and so we picked, pricked and put them in the brine. That frothy stuff on the top ( I let them go longer that 7 days, and forgot to stir) got a layer of mold scum. Is it OK to scrape off or is it all headed to the trash?

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